Last number of the PLYN journal – 2/2019

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INFORMATIVE ARTICLES

  • A View of Natural Gas Use in Transport in Germany
  • CNG Vehicle Parking in Parking Garages in the Czech Republic
  • Prospects for CNG Development
  • Hydrogen Electro-mobility in the Czech Republic
  • Practical Experience with CNG Mobility: ‘Gas Moisture’
  • Models of CNG Passenger Cars in the Czech Market
  • BioLPG and Its Potential
  • Examples of Biomethane Use in Germany and Austria
  • The Interest in CNG Use in Transport Can Also Have Some Downsides
  • Bonett Press Release
  • In Brief
  • Other Periodicals
  • CNG Motoring – New Fuelling Stations

THE CGA‘S ACTIVITIES

  • CNG Advocacy Campaign
  • Symposium 2019
  • The 2019 Plan of the Development of Rules for Practice – Clean Mobility and Alternative Energy Sources
  • A Meeting of MARCOGAZ’s WG Methane Emissions in Prague
  • Celebrations of the CGA’s 100th Anniversary
  • The Board Congratulates
  • Remembering Petr Aleš

TECHNICAL ARTICLES


Clean Mobility from the LNG Perspective

Václav Chrz

Summary: For the medium and long term, liquefied natural gas (LNG) offers an environmentally friendly and economical alternative fuel for trucks and buses. Following diesel and petrol, LNG is still a highly compact fuel suitable for placing its sufficient quantity on board the vehicle, providing for a long range in turn. This contribution describes LNG’s position among other fuels, summarises LNG sources, and presents transport vehicles for LNG distribution. Attention is also paid to the on-board fuel systems of LNG vehicles and the development of LNG fuelling stations and vehicles in Europe. The conclusion discusses the plans for LNG introduction in the Czech Republic. LNG as a fuel for heavy-duty freight transport is undergoing significant development in Europe and the Czech Republic is standing on the threshold of its intensive utilisation. This will result in significant environmental improvements through reductions in emissions of harmful substances from heavy-duty road haulage and reductions in CO2 emissions.

Distributed Natural Gas Moisture and CNG Preparation

Václav Koza

Summary: Natural gas distributed to customers may contain up to 80 mg of water/kg of gas. Specifications of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a vehicle fuel set out an approximately four times lower permissible level of gas moisture. Although distributed gas meets the quality requirements with a good margin, it usually exceeds the maximum permissible moisture for CNG preparation and requires drying for use as CNG in addition to compression. The contribution outlines the basis for comparing the two requirements and illustrates the situation on a real-life example of distributed gas.

Biomethane as an alternative fuel for public and freight transport

Petr Novotný

Summary: As electricity, gas can also be produced from renewable sources. The so-called renewable natural gas, or biomethane, is produced by upgrading biogas. Biogas is the product of anaerobic decomposition of organic material in biogas plants. The feedstock for biogas production includes energy crops (primarily maize) and biodegradable waste. However, despite the country’s dense network of biogas plants, in the Czech Republic biomethane is not produced at any of them. The reason is the structure of the operating aid for biogas, which only applies to combined heat and power generation (cogeneration). In most cases, the problem of cogeneration is the insufficient use of heat at the place of its production, which detracts from the efficiency of biogas energy utilisation. Biogas upgrade to natural gas quality helps to produce biomethane, which can either be injected into the gas distribution network or used directly as fuel for CNG vehicles. The optimum configuration, which has been working well in other countries, is to produce biomethane by processing biologically degradable waste and use it as BioCNG to drive public transport buses or municipal service vehicles. In the Czech Republic, this scheme was first tested in Brno in late 2018.

Biogas Upgrade Using Catalytic Methanation: Power-to-Biomethane

Jan Kulas, Lukáš Polák, Tomáš Hlinčík

Summary: The contribution discusses the use of catalytic methanation as an alternative method for biogas upgrading. At present, biogas is upgraded to biomethane only through carbon dioxide separation. The most frequently employed methods include physical and chemical absorption, adsorption, and membrane separation. A major downside of these methods is the production of carbon dioxide, which is currently released into the air most often, contributing to its increasing levels in the atmosphere. Another minus is the capital and operating expenditure on the separating unit, which makes biomethane more expensive. For these reasons a new application has been found for catalytic methanation. Four model gases have been tested at a pressure of 0.55 MPa. The first model gas helped to identify the activity and selectivity of the catalyst used. This gas contained a stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (4:1). The other three model gases contained biogas at CH4:CO2 ratios of 20:80, 40:60 and 60:40 and hydrogen at a stoichiometric ratio to carbon dioxide. The results of the experimental measurements show that the maximum production of methane was achieved using the model gas with a CH4:CO2 ratio of 60:40 at a temperature of 340 °C, when the molar fraction of methane in the gas produced climbed to a value of up to 0.98.

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